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After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age. Galileo Galilei – Biography of the Father of Science is a biography of Galileo (15 February January 1642) an Italian astronomer, physicist, mathematician and philosopher whose contributions had a significant role in the scientific revolution.
Some ancient knowledge was lost, or in some cases kept in obscurity, during the fall of the Western Roman Empire and periodic political struggles. However, the general fields of science (or “natural philosophy” as it was called) and much of the general knowledge from the ancient world remained preserved through the works of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Seville.
Another original work that gained influence in this period was Ptolemy’s Almagest, which contains a geocentric description of the solar system. They were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice or technology, Greek technē) was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for artisans of lower social class. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes.
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Philosophy is considered the mother of sciences. To a student of science whose faith is entirely with physical sciences, this claim may sound like the wishful thinking of a frustrated philosopher, but philosophy is a unique field. It addresses questions in every aspect of human life, and its techniques apply to problems in any field of study or endeavor. No brief definition expresses the richness and variety of philosophy; it is nothing less than the attempt to understand the universe as a whole.
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It is a reasoned pursuit of fundamental truths, a quest for understanding, a study of principles of conduct. Philosophy seeks to establish standards of evidence, to provide rational methods of resolving conflicts, and to create techniques for evaluating ideas and arguments. These techniques, of course, provide the basis for modern sciences. Then the Industrial Revolution changed the way humans live again. This time industry increased how efficiently we could do a whole variety of things, and even fewer people were needed to farm and make food.